A daily train operated by China Railway leaves for the town of Pogranichny, Russia (Пограничный, 44°24′N, 131°23′E) (格罗捷科沃 or 格罗迭科沃 in Chinese) on the other side of the border. The railway line between Suifenhe and Pogranichny uses the Russian gauge. The journey time is 1hr 30min. The Chinese exit border checks take place in Suifenhe railway station before boarding the train to Russia. Russian entry border checks take place in Pogranichny (Grodekovo) station after leaving the train. As of 2017, the train (number 402) departs daily from Suifenhe at 10:00 (local time, GMT+8) and arrives in Pogranichny at 13:30 (local time, GMT+10)/06:30 (Moscow time, GMT+3). The return train (number 401) departs daily from Pogranichny at 17:43 (local time, GMT+10)/10:43 (Moscow time, GMT+3) and arrives in Suifenhe at 17:14 (local time, GMT+8). Check the up-to-date train timetable on the Russian Railways website (note that the railway station in Pogranichny appears on the Russian Railways website as Grodekovo, and Suifenhe appears as Sujfjen'hje). As of 2017, according to the information on the Russian Railways website, a one-way ticket from Pogranichny (Grodekovo) to Suifenhe costs 7.10 Swiss Francs (CHF). As of 2015, a one-way ticket from Suifenhe to Pogranichny (Grodekovo) costs ¥71/person (see this Chinese blog post to view a ticket on this route from 2015).
The price is subject to scheming and might prove suspect at times.
From Pogranichny (Grodekovo), there is a train to Ussuriysk, where you can change for Vladivostok and Khabarovsk.